Personal computer PC, went became so realized by the idea of a portable personal computer. It has been described in the paper as his Dynabook imagination and by Alan Kay at Xerox PARC in personal portable information manipulator.
Portable machine SCAMP special computer APL of IBM has been demonstrated. This prototype, based on IBM PALM processor put all the logic in the bit or microcode.
A portable computer IBM are commercially available in the first appeared in September, I was based on the SCAMP prototype.
Accepted a number of portable widely increase rapidly as became a bit CPU machine. Been released to manufacturers use Z, Osborne, and weighed. Pounds. is kg. It did not have to Battery A and dual cm CRT screen. Single density floppy drive inch cm. The same year, the first laptop sizing a portable computer that was announced Epson HX. Epson had a selection of printer calculator and size rechargeable batteries LCD. is kg. Chassis of pounds. In addition both the HP and TandyRadioShack, I produced a portable computer design that changes during this period.
By using the flip form factor, the first laptop has appeared in the early seconds. Dulmont Magnum was released in Australia, but it was not until it is sold internationally. Western that was used in NASA, grid compass US $ US $ today, was released by the military in particular. Gabiran SC that have been released, was the first computer which has been described as a laptop of its manufacturer. Later, from the new input technology of some, it is developed in the laptop such as handwriting recognition and IBM ThinkPad, touch pad Gabi run SC pointing stick to write a top, was included Linus. Is designed in some CPU such as Intel ISL, to use the minimum power in order to prolong the battery life of portable computers, and supported by dynamic power management features such as AMD PowerNow vans and Intel SpeedStep such had been! In some designs.
Display, reached VGA resolution by Compaq SLT, color screen, began to become a general upgrade to the introduction of the laptop screen and resolution, in an increase of screen size that occur frequently. I began to be used in portable hard drive is encouraged by the introduction of. I became common in laptops starting with the introduction of, and drive in the second half. Smaller drive around; usually, capacity, lags behind the big desktop drive physically. The optical storage, read the CD-ROM only followed to a writable CD, reading of DVD writable or, later only, Blu-Ray, became common in laptops in s early.
Memory RAM: Most laptops will use the SO DIMM memory module. These are approximately half the size of desktop DIMM. They can be placed where it is not intended to replace or user access from the bottom of the laptop in order to facilitate the upgrade. Part of the lowermost there is only one, and is intended for games or high-end model mobile engineering workstations some normal, there is a high-end model of some, but most laptops, there is a memory two sockets . Due to limitations, which is that it is possible to systems that use activated DDR memory only most laptops are enabled to extend to the sum of GB of memory DDR SO DIMM maximum per module GB therefore means. Laptop midrange most is factory equipped with a RAM of GB. Equipped with only GB RAM in general, up to GB, which, if at netbooks, are extensible only in general. In order to save space inside the case significantly more and more, the MacBook Air and Pro, the number of models, including a model of the MacBook are soldered memory, the motherboard is less. You can eliminate the possibility of extension, but this is, to enable thinner, lighter design.
Expansion cards: add an ExpressCard slot or PCMCIA expansion cards for earlier, the power supply of the laptop even if already on, a laptop to be able to remove the ability, in many cases, PC card in the past, present had. Can be implemented as an accessible replaceable internal expansion cards, usually under the access cover on the bottom of a wireless cellular modem or Wi Fi Ethernet, Laptop: the introduction of USB is some internal, such as .. because of the sub-systems, they are becoming increasingly rare. Standards of such a card is PCI Express, which comes with both of the size of the next generation form factor or M. smaller mini. The new laptop, it is also able to see the function of micro SATA mSATA to M. card slot to allow the inquiry e of these slots of solid-state drives for SATA-based or PCI Express Mini is not uncommon.
Power: The range of, typically, the laptop is powered by an internal rechargeable battery that is charged using an external power supply that outputs a DC voltage typically. Bolt. Typically, power supply is connected to a laptop via a DC connector cable outside. In most cases, you can at the same time to charge the battery, to supply power to the laptop. When the battery is fully charged, the laptop will continue to run on the power supplied from an external power supply. On some models, lighter or heavier substantially but, usually, the charger will be added for gram Pound against transport overall weight of the notebook.
Battery: current laptop uses a flat lithium polymer technology, I will use a lithium-ion battery model and some thin. The two technologies, you replace the nickel-metal hydride battery mainly old. Battery life is highly variable due to workload model, it can be in the range from an hour to a day approximately. Performance of the battery will decrease with time gradually. 1 to 3 years of regular use, depending on the charge, a substantial reduction of the capacity after discharging the battery design pattern is evident, typically. The main battery of this large capacity, you can use for almost any computer to perform a real-time clock, when off, the computer is not to be confused with the battery much smaller in order to save the BIOS settings in CMOS. In order to be able to have the old battery, lithium-ion battery has no memory effect. You’ve seen a situation where you can provide a business hours continuous battery is assumed to average power consumption level of innovation and batteries laptop. In this example, it is the HP EliteBook p that are used in ultra-capacity battery.
Video Display Controller: in order to save power and space, in most laptops that are integrated into the CPU, this, video controller, its core i series after the APU processor similar to the mobile processors in by AMD Intel has been introduced in the year. The front of the lower end of the machine, there is a tendency to use a graphics processor that is integrated into the system chipset having a graphics processor high-end machine independent. Lacks the graphics processor independent, laptop in the past, was limited to its usefulness for professional applications, including D graphics and games, but the function of the CPU integrated graphics, the past number of Over the years, is consistent with the lower end of the graphics processor dedicated. High-end notebook PC that is intended for the development work of a professional dedicated graphics processor and games, such as internal expansion card or on the motherboard are included. If present, so as not to request for a dedicated graphics processor high performance integrated graphics processor power efficiency is used more since they involve graphics switchable almost always. Optimus Nvidia’s is an example of this kind of system of switchable graphics.
Based on the LED lighting and CCFL, resolution of inch centimeter is, have an active matrix display of a larger color laptop most recent: the above Pixel: Display: or. Power consumption and small models of LED-based lighting, in many cases, it provides a higher brightness. Sub-notebook or netbook netbook with a small screen inch cm or more, and, while using the resolution of the times in general. To be screened using the resolution inch cm inch cm, of the notebook PC standard. Not only resolution more items, rather than to increase the available space, to have high-resolution displays is multitasking in high resolution small screen that may be useful for displaying text and graphics sharp making it possible when improve the ability of the user to, to fit on the screen.
The first laptop was the size of notebook paper A size of the North American standard of paper. Without the need to reference inch, laptop size, was introduced them about a sheet of paper about the width of the ISO standard later. Add a vertical column of keys on the screen inch wider, than the right,. Also, when it is not used, it can be arranged horizontally. There is an appearance since then the number of laptop type.
Form of a notebook computer traditional is clamshell keyboard on the opposite side of the screen of one of its sides. It can be folded to save space while traveling easier, but it can not be used in the closed state on the go. It has a larger screen than inches, and if you want to run the operating system with full functions, such as Windows, general, this type of device is sometimes referred to as a notebook or a conventional laptop.
Main article: Desktop Replacement computer
Desktop replacement notebook, is a large laptop that mobile phone use is not intended primarily. They are bulky, and not portable, such as laptops and other, they are intended to be used as an alternative to portable compact desktop computers. It is meant to be traditionally, to provide the approximate performance of a desktop computer with a similar level of performance they, but it has disappeared from the distinction around the performance of the laptop between the desktop and the main stream. Size is kept alive distinction: desktop replacements, larger than the other classes of laptop is heavy, typically. May include more powerful components are possible, or they have a larger display.
Operating their time is shorter typically than other laptops in the battery. In rare cases, they do not have a battery at all. The laptop portion of this class, the practice has died out largely in the past, in order at the expense of battery life and provide a better performance for the same price, to use a limited range of desktop components .
If this is set to powerful laptops and more, much cheaper than before powerful upgrade is more, easy, desktop early is laptop to minimize the need for internal add-on cards peripherals most it depends on the laptop can be used in the version of USB that is compatible, but up until the much cheaper in later years.
In many cases, the game name and laptop media center laptop, is used to describe a special notebook overlapping the desktop replacement form factor.
Main article: Sub-Notebook
VAIO P Series sub-notebook Sony
Emphasizes portability and ultra-lightweight design and sub-notebook, the small size and light weight, in many cases, are sold with a longer battery life, it is a laptop. Between the sub-notebook, than laptops measurement standards, is usually smaller and lighter. The kilograms to pounds. The battery life can exceed the time. Ultra book a line between the category of one of the sub-notebook netbook and since the introduction had been blurred. It is inexpensive subcategory and features more basic sub-notebook essentially, while you have a screen size too large, netbooks, ultra most to qualify as a sub-notebook ultrabooks some book is also a sub-notebook.
I have realized the small screen and ultraportables use reduction of size and weight up to. By omitting the opticalremovable media drive, sub most notebooks we have achieved to improve the portability further. In the past, often, they had a relatively small number of ports, but is largely lost by moving, HDMI and USB, to standardize this distinction.
Similarly, they often adopted the expensive parts that are designed for construction method and use advanced materials and power efficiency of up to the magnitude of the minimum in the past, but in the past few years, parts and technology of these mainstream it has become, it is often little distinction other than the screen size.
Equipment will be sold in some cases, the term with a laptop, sub-notebook, OS specific mobile devices such as Android and Palm OS of iOS in general, Windows CE for such rather these operating systems, which has been reserved for the laptop to run Windows other than the desktop operating system of general purpose, such as the Mac OS X and Linux. In two cases now, the Chrome OS and Windows RT, there is a tendency to blur the branding. It is not unlikely to distinguish the small Chromebook model from a general definition any reasonable subnotebook.
Intel has announced a new class for the ultra-portable called ultrabooks at Computer of. This term is used to as an instant of functions on such, you have a tablet and functional descriptions and laptop strict limit is highly portable for size, weight, battery life. Intel, has been estimated to be in ultrabooks by the end of the percent of the market segment of the laptop consumers. Since then, regardless of the long-term, they are in the general term for the thin and light notebook PC or not can be sold under the trademark Ultra book legally.
Main article: Netbook
Netbook Samsung Chromebook
Netbook is a market segment of laptops that are particularly suitable for Internet access and wireless communication, energy efficient and economical lightweight inexpensive. Therefore, netbook name as the device has excellent computing performance of Web-based. It became famous in the late term age, and some of the powerful and lightweight notebook PC, the majority has been abolished as though to maintain its brand at least.
It is intended to be highly dependent on the Internet for remote access to Web-based applications with the main focus given to e-mailing or netbook web browsing, it depends on the server, less powerful, client I have been increasingly targeted users of cloud computing that requires a computer. That is, a common feature is the lack Blu-ray drive CD, DVD, or optical disc. Device, while the range of size inches, from the bottom to weigh the NAND .. kilopounds the inches inches and millimeters between the most.
Such as Linux primarily, netbooks, has been sold in lightweight operating system as a Windows Starter Edition and Windows XP.
Netbook, had several drawbacks. Tremendously hard when the low-end notebook PC typical of when you instead in order to limit the weight and cost, the first product that has been introduced into the available market, was among gigabytes gigabytes typical size reduce the storage capacity was a small early generation solid state drives drives, and solid-state drives modern provides little advantage of the non-performance of the rotating disk on a very GB- for the internal storage of a conventional hard disk I was different. Form factor hard disk drive technology has been adapted to fit into netbooks increase to provide a free space of multiple hard drives and at no cost the key point of netbooks ever since. Another problem with the netbook, is an extension. Tendency for Atom processors used in netbooks and the most significant upgrade capability in general in order to generate a small inexpensive laptop, the netbook has a limit of their own is missing.
It has a memory slot of the single, most of the netbook does not recognize any amount beyond the RAM of GB. This limits the functionality of the netbook beyond the e-mail and the Internet basic functions. Finally, the net book cost has a CPU slower than almost always compared with the size of them, in the sub-notebook typical
Combination of price and weight diagonal form factor is dollars kg, until the commercial around each major breakthrough of netbook computers did not happen.
In Google, Chromebook of Google and for this market, announced an operating system called Google Chrome OS in the year when it was released and is running on the OS of Google Chrome. While primarily, are connected, because it is used in the Internet, because it is in a new class of device, that has not been advertising the Chromebook machine as a netbook Google is the evolution of the concept it is.
The niche of the netbook, since the production stop them before the end of the year, the company that netbook manufacturing major of all, gone to the rise of the MacBook Air and Chromebook tablet ultrabooks.
Lenovo X Convertible Notebook PC
After turning the keyboard housing, to flatten on the housing of the keyboard, the conversion typical modern, has a complex joint between displays that allow the display panel. Most of the convertible is equipped with touch screen display, to operate in tablet mode with the touch pad traditional. Convertible is compatible with both the category of tablet device or laptop, but I examined the laptop of the size and weight of the tablet on the usual cause mainstream.
In general, the base of the convertible attachment is referred to as rotary hinge or swivel hinge for the display of a single joint. In order to screen is rotated until °, is to provide a flat writing surface, joints, will be able to fold down the top of the keyboard. The most common, although this design, physical point of weakness on the laptop will be created. In order to screen such as this to provide a laptop mode, some manufacturers, to adopt innovative methods such as sliding design that slides up from the slate, such as the lock located in place by, we have attempted to overcome these drawbacks.
There are some more exotic form of convertible notebook PC. In one case, it is the laptop of Asus Taichi that features two screens. The outer screen on the opposite side of the same plane, as a tablet it is possible, while will be able to use this notebook, one of the inside is a notebook screen of conventional.
Surface of Microsoft, Pro laplet a typical
Device category of laptop is the latest laplet. It is a bag of tablet laptop and words, it is a crossover of these device types. It has been studied as a tablet by agencies such as the TSA and laplet FAA in general, there is a lot of features of the laptop in general.
The specification, such as any of the laplets However Ultrabook of do not have a unibody enclosure that offers a removable keyboard that can be parted from the main slate body and touch screen display is the most closely. In many cases, Laplets is very thin around the millimeter light device with a long battery life. By Typically, mounting the CPU of ultra-low-X architecture or low, laplets such as Intel Core such when compared with tablets distinguish mainstream with them the voltage model, I the OS full-featured as Windows run. And I have a number of IO ports of a typical laptop, such as the mini DisplayPort and USB.
Not only as a media consumption device, such as a keyboard or connect a mouse of applications such as desktop Adobe Photoshop of the cause, Laplets designed valid desktop to the ability of laplets to perform many of the peripheral devices, such as the number of external not only as a replacement for a laptop or, to use but it will be displayed. Device of Pro series of surface of Microsoft, is a prominent example of laplets in the market.
Main article: rugged computer
ruggedruggedized laptop, has been designed strong vibration such, so as to operate in harsh conditions used reliably as a dusty environment and wet and extreme temperatures. Usually, rather than being designed from scratch, sturdy laptop is adapted laptop model of consumers on a regular basis. Rugged notebook PC is a much more expensive heavy and bulky than the laptop usually, therefore, can not be seen in the use of consumer regular rarely.
Rubber sheet to seal the port under the key of the keyboard, design features that are found in rugged laptops, the connector, magnesium alloy much stronger than plastic found in solid-state storage devices and commercial laptops hard disk drive that is shock cooling passive cover and included, are mounted to withstand the vibration always display very bright and easy to read in the frame or case of daylight. In general, the rugged notebook PC, which is used by the oil drilling personnel construction and mining safety and emergency medical service police and fire department, military utility field service technicians public. That rugged notebook PC have been sold to individuals rather than the normal tissues are not sold through retail channels most.
Hardware of the personal computer: Main article
Comparison of the ATX form factor motherboard desktop computer to the motherboard from the MacBook unibody laptop: miniaturization
Inner view of laptop Sony VAIO
Same functions as those of the corresponding desktop of their basic components of the laptop; traditionally, they are compact, desktop system is increased as a decade now, evolved for mobile applications originally , you can use the same small low-power components, but were adapted to the use of mobile phones. Boundary of the cooling design of the laptop and the magnitude of power, has been reduced in recent years more and more the difference, but I will limit the maximum performance of the components of the laptop comparison to that of desktop components.
The following list summarizes the distinctive features of the components of the laptop and the difference as compared to the parts of the desktop personal computer.
I have to generate less heat than the processor of the target CPU of the notebook PC is purely for advanced desktop power-saving function: the central processing unit CPU. Core model is available, but usually, these days, they will have a two processor cores. Between the desktop and the CPU performance of the laptop, a higher, a large-scale still substantially heat and power utilization is the fastest to the core desktop processors in order to obtain the performance of the main stream and low price – at the expense of while peak out in Watts, the processor of the laptop the fastest desktop processor the fastest that does not exist anymore plateau in watts of heat distinction of high-end surpassing the processor core of the fastest laptop.
There was a wide range of CPU designed for available for laptops from both other manufacturers Intel, and AMD. And IBM x architecture is non-Motorola, laptop PowerBook and iBook of production on the chip for PowerPC Apple’s former base. Has become the trend, as it was to be thin and lightweight models more and more, this is less common in the past few years, but many laptops have a removable CPU. The CPU is soldered to the motherboard, it is non-replaceable in other laptops. This is, for example, is almost universal in ultrabooks.
And at the expense of battery life and limited large weight heat instead of a desktop processor, more, using a version of the laptop, some laptops will have to improve the high performance in the past. Are largely extinct as practice.